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A number of rich trajectories of inquiry are suggested. The contributions in this special issue offer critical analyses of HIV prevention among gay men in the United States and Australia and of mass treatment and prevention campaigns in Western Africa and South Africa.
HIV Interventions: Biomedicine and the Traffic Between Information and Flesh
They were chosen from among 22 papers received in response to a call for submissions, which was distributed widely through professional and disciplinary networks, including medical anthropology and sociology listserves and the Sociologists' AIDS Network. The call invited papers from critical social sciences or cultural studies, written from disciplinary or interdisciplinary perspectives and encompassing theoretical or theoretico-empirical work. All papers were reviewed by at least two external reviewers. The papers published here were written by authors working out of Canada, Australia, the United States and South Africa.
Nguyen draws on Foucault's late work on the governmentalization of the state and contemporary discussions of Agamben's writings on the state of exception.
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He asks how to make sense of mass HIV treatment programs in which NGOs, European hospitals and American universities directly govern the lives of populations of people living with HIV in some African countries, holding more control over the delivery of services to them than do their own states, in effect, exercising a power of life or death p.
For Nguyen, the answer takes the form of a hypothesis. Using his fieldwork experience as an anthropologist and physician in Western Africa and devising an analysis that emphasizes continuities between contemporary forms of HIV humanitarianism and the organization of postcolonial biomedical and military power, he proposes that mass HIV treatment campaigns be understood as a novel form of legitimate therapeutic dominance. In doing so, he invites us to consider such programs as forms of biopolitical intervention that invoke a right to intervene in order to save lives on the basis of a representation of HIV as a particular form of emergency.
For Dowsett, the long-term presence of HIV risk demands a review of the matrix of prevention research and interventions. Many gay men have some knowledge and experience of a diverse set of prevention strategies that have developed over the course of the epidemic. Yet their practices may not necessarily accord with what is expected to follow from this knowledge and experience.
Declaring that in he broke his own rule of never having unprotected anal intercourse, he quickly dispenses with the usual reasons offered for taking such a risk. In place of such a tendency, Dowsett directs us to reflect on the relational and dynamic nature of the social. Sexual cultures are by no means unchanging. The achievements of prevention work are powerful evidence of this point.
Dowsett makes an important call to recognize the plurality that now makes up gay sexual cultures and how this continues to evoke new sexual interactions, including those in which condom use or its now marked absence may have multiple meanings. We are invited to reflexively engage with the epidemic in a manner that recognizes that those who live with it, do so in ways affected by our interventions.
In its place, it is time to rebuild the research agenda in a manner reflexive to the multiple contingencies out of which are emerging new and more heterogeneous epidemics. Importantly, whereas contemporary critiques of the use of identity categories might make us shy away from locating research subjects according to the categories of Latino immigrant and not, here it provides necessary depth to what others have identified as the worrying mismatch of assumptions Kippax and Race, , p.
In contrast to the small sub-set of studies that focus on the changed meanings of sexual cues — notably the suggestion or non-suggestion of condom use — that have emerged with the advent of antiretrovirals and more fractured ideas of infectivity and risk Flowers, ; Adam, ; Rosengarten, , Fontdevila provides a cross-cultural dimension to the context in which he is located.
The study makes a valuable contribution to the research agenda through its development of the interactionist tradition and, in the course of doing so, provides a rich source of material to assist the effective tailoring of prevention programs. The historical examination is illuminating for the way it exposes a series of consistencies in prevention education across the two examples that, it is argued, are responsible for the evident failure of both, notwithstanding significant differences in the tone and product format of the media involved.
Reiterating what may be considered one of the underlying themes of this issue, Jeeves and Jolly make us especially aware of the importance of investing in prevention strategies that are tailored to local specificities.
HIV Interventions: Biomedicine and the Traffic between Information and Flesh
Their focus is on the disjuncture that exists between everyday sense-making and biomedical knowledges and, thus, how the uptake of any biomedical intervention — knowledge or drugs — relies on research attuned to the difficulties that any of us may experience when reconciling disparate conceptions of risk. Resonating with the work of others who have highlighted the problematic of the mythical autonomous liberal subject see for example, Adam, ; Holt and Stephenson, ; Mykhalovskiy, ; Tomso, , Jeeves and Jolly underscore the importance of cultural research attuned to the socio-historico-political processes through which HIV risk emerges, and, therefore, may be averted.
For those unfamiliar with the array of social, political, ethical and medical changes that have occurred with the advent of HIV antiretroviral treatments in late , it will be evident that there remains an immense amount of work to be carried out by social researchers. The insightful way in which our interviewees reflect on their long-term experience exposes much of what the field has become over the course of time and space: increasing biomedicalization does not necessarily mean that the epidemic itself has subsided or, in many places, become more manageable. On the one hand, the paper provides varying emphases on what it is to do social theory or theoretico-empirical work.
On the other hand, it contextualizes these in ways that may resonate for others working in the health field and who find themselves having to account for methodological innovation that extends beyond the conventions of the natural sciences. We are immensely grateful to our interlocutors for the incisive way they have illuminated HIV as in no less urgent need of creative thought and action than that which — pre-antiretrovirals — put this unwanted imaginable on the map as an exemplar of patient activism, medical innovation and radical theoretical development.
We close with a note of thanks. This special issue would not have been possible without the support of the journal editors Paul Higgs and Graham Scambler, the tireless assistance of Miranda Scambler and the contributions of the anonymous reviewers.
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CrossRef Google Scholar. Biehl, J. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Crimp, D. October 43, special issue. Dowsett, G. Epstein, S. Flowers, P. Fontdevila, J. Holt, M. Jeeves, A.
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Kippax, S. Rosengarten, M. Thurtle and. Mitchell eds. Kippax and In Vivo Dec 11, Press, We know that HIV was globally resurgent as early as , but it would take around two decades. Jan 1, In , the traffic of heads became outlawed in New.
bbmpay.veritrans.co.id/paginas-conocer-gente-ahigal.php Zealand, but not before Sep 4, FMFN use and occupancy, as well as background information used for the basis for study area He has observed that 'meat doesn't taste as good as back then', and notes that the concern. HIV Interventions: biomedicine and the traffic between information and the flesh. Fat cells — 10 years. We gain about ten per cent new fat cells each year and about the same quantity die.
When we gain weight, our fat cells have been Researches: Injury epidemiology and prevention in a global per- spective, including a focus on road traffic injuries. Three researchers about road safety