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If you're not happy with this, we won't set these cookies but some nice features on the site may be unavailable. Back Themes. Area Studies. Home Products J. Walter Thompson: Advertising America. Download Flyer Go to Collection. Explore years of advertising, consumer and cultural history.
Trends Source Archive John W. Walter Thompson: Advertising American Contents. You may also like Advertising: manipulation, persuasion, information or experience enhancer? Trade Catalogues and the American Home. American Consumer Culture. Market Research and American Business, Popular Culture in Britain and America, Keep up to date. In recent study, Mangen, Walgermo, and Bronnick found that students who read on paper performed slightly better than those who read an e-book on an open-book reading comprehension exam of multiple-choice and short-answer questions. While a meta-analysis of research by Andrews seemed to confirm that people read more slowly and comprehend less when reading from screens, a meta-analysis of more recent research on this topic does not show anything definite Noyes and Garland In both cases, information and entertainment could be enjoyed at home, with a kind of immediacy and community that newspapers could not offer.
For instance, many people in the United States might remember when they saw on television or heard on the radio that the Twin Towers in New York City had been attacked in Even though people were in their own homes, media allowed them to share these moments in real time. This same kind of separate-but-communal approach occurred with entertainment too. Right up through the s, U.
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The networks also exerted a lot of control over what people watched. Public television, in contrast, offered an educational nonprofit alternative to the sensationalization of news spurred by the network competition for viewers and advertising dollars. Al Jazeera, the Arabic independent news station, has joined this group as a similar media force that broadcasts to people worldwide.
The impact of television on U. By the late s, 98 percent of U. All this television has a powerful socializing effect, providing reference groups while reinforcing social norms, values, and beliefs. The film industry took off in the s, when color and sound were first integrated into feature films. Like television, early films were unifying for society: as people gathered in theaters to watch new releases, they would laugh, cry, and be scared together.
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Movies also act as time capsules or cultural touchstones for society. Increasingly, people are watching films online via Netflix, Hulu, Amazon, and other streaming services. While most streaming video companies keep their user data secret, Nielsen estimated that 38 percent of U. In , Google, Inc. Netflix, one form of new media, exchanges information in the form of DVDs to users in the comfort of their own homes. New media encompasses all interactive forms of information exchange.
These include social networking sites, blogs, podcasts, wikis, and virtual worlds. Clearly, the list grows almost daily.
Advertising and Society: An Introduction
However, there is no guarantee that the information offered is accurate. In fact, the immediacy of new media coupled with the lack of oversight means we must be more careful than ever to ensure our news is coming from accurate sources. People have trouble keeping up with technological innovation.
But people may not be to blame, as manufacturers intentionally develop products with short life spans. Photo courtesy of Mathias F. Chances are your mobile phone company, as well as the makers of your laptop and your household appliances, are all counting on their products to fail.
This strategy is called planned obsolescence , and it is the business practice of planning for a product to be obsolete or unusable from the time it is created. To some extent, planned obsolescence is a natural extension of new and emerging technologies. After all, who is going to cling to an enormous and slow desktop computer from when a few hundred dollars can buy one that is significantly faster and better?
But the practice is not always so benign. The classic example of planned obsolescence is the nylon stocking.
Advertising and society: an introduction | University of Liverpool
This requires the stockings to be discarded and new ones purchased. Those who use Microsoft Windows might feel that like the women who purchased endless pairs of stockings, they are victims of planned obsolescence. Every time Windows releases a new operating system, there are typically not many innovations in it that consumers feel they must have.
However, the software programs are upwardly compatible only. This means that while the new versions can read older files, the old version cannot read the newer ones. In short order, those who have not upgraded right away find themselves unable to open files sent by colleagues or friends, and they usually wind up upgrading as well.
Ultimately, whether you are getting rid of your old product because you are being offered a shiny new free one like the latest smartphone model , or because it costs more to fix than to replace like the iPod model , or because not doing so leaves you out of the loop like the Windows model , the result is the same. Companies use advertising to sell to us, but the way they reach us is changing. Naomi Klein identified the destructive impact of corporate branding her text, No Logo , an antiglobalization treatise that focused on sweatshops, corporate power, and anticonsumerist social movements.
In the post-millennial society, synergistic advertising practices ensure you are receiving the same message from a variety of sources and on a variety of platforms. For example, you may see billboards for Miller beer on your way to a stadium, sit down to watch a game preceded by a Miller commercial on the big screen, and watch a halftime ad in which people are shown holding up the trademark bottles. Chances are you can guess which brand of beer is for sale at the concession stand. Advertising has changed, as technology and media have allowed consumers to bypass traditional advertising venues.
From the invention of the remote control, which allows us to skip television advertising without leaving our seats, to recording devices that let us watch programs but skip the ads, conventional television advertising is on the wane. And print media is no different. Advertising revenue in newspapers and on television fell significantly in , which shows that companies need new ways of getting their messages to consumers. One model companies are considering to address this advertising downturn uses the same philosophy as celebrity endorsements, just on a different scale. Companies are hiring college students to be their on-campus representatives, and they are looking for popular students engaged in high-profile activities like sports, fraternities, and music.
According to an article in the New York Times , fall semester saw an estimated 10, U. As the companies figure it, college students will trust one source of information above all: other students. Despite the variety of media at hand, the mainstream news and entertainment you enjoy are increasingly homogenized.
Research by McManus suggests that different news outlets all tell the same stories, using the same sources, resulting in the same message, presented with only slight variations. Simultaneously with this homogenization among the major news outlets, the opposite process is occurring in the newer media streams. With so many choices, people increasingly customize their news experience, minimizing their opportunity to encounter information that does not jive with their worldview Prior For instance, those who are staunchly Republican can avoid centrist or liberal-leaning cable news shows and web sites that would show Democrats in a favorable light.
Further, people who want to avoid politics completely can choose to visit web sites that deal only with entertainment or that will keep them up to date on sports scores. They have an easy way to avoid information they do not wish to hear. Media and technology have been interwoven from the earliest days of human communication. The printing press, the telegraph, and the Internet are all examples of their intersection. Mass media have allowed for more shared social experiences, but new media now create a seemingly endless amount of airtime for any and every voice that wants to be heard.
Advertising has also changed with technology. New media allow consumers to bypass traditional advertising venues and cause companies to be more innovative and intrusive as they try to gain our attention. To understand how independent media coverage differs from major corporate affiliated news outlets, review material from the Democracy Now! Anderson, C. Anderson, Craig.
Anderson, Philip, and Michael Tushman. Dillon, Andrew.
DeSilver, Drew. Duggan, Maeve, and Aaron Smith. Pew Research Center. International Telecommunication Unions.